Comparing data from COVID-19, influenza and pneumonia

Comparing data from COVID-19, influenza and pneumonia
  • 1 in 3 patients with influenza contract a pneumococcus bacterial infection alongside the virus which can lead to pneumonia, and in some cases may develop sepsis, which can be fatal.
  • Pneumonia resulting from a pneumococcal infection is one of the leading causes of death among those over the age of 65.
  • Patients with congenital health conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and lung disease, are at a greater risk of losing their lives to COVID-19, influenza, and pneumonia than the general population.

COVID-19, influenza and pneumonia comparison

 

COVID-19

Influenza

Pneumococcal pneumonia

Rate of infection

Patients aged between 15 – 49 make up 55.1% of all patients C1

 

713 out of every 100,000 people worldwide contract influenza each year

 

In Thailand, the infection rate is 1,231 out of every 100,000F2

The older the person, the greater the risk of infection P1

  • 25 out of every 100,000 people aged 50 – 64 will contract the disease each year
  • 67 out of every 100,000 people aged over 65 contract the disease each year

The risk is heightened among older people who also suffer from congenital health conditionsP1

  • 187 out of every 100,000 people over 65 with diabetes contract the disease each year
  • 254 out of every 100,000 people over 65 with heart disease contract the disease each year
  • 398 out of every 100,000 people over 65 with asthma contract the disease each year
  • 516 out of every 100,000 people over 65 with lung disease contract the disease each year

Virus or bacteria responsible for the infection

SARS-CoV-2

Influenza A(H3N2), A(H1N1)) virus

Influenza B virus

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Symptoms

14-day incubation period

Around 97.5% of sufferers begin to show symptoms within 11.5 days

Symptoms are as follows:

Fever (98%), approximately 60% of which have been above 38C

Dry cough (68%)

Exhaustion (38%)

Breathing difficulty (31%)

Headaches, muscle pain or cold shivers are found in approximately 11–13% of cases C1

Fever of over 38C combined with cold shivers

Muscle pain and headaches

Dry cough

Exhaustion

Blocked nose

Sore throatF3

High fever and cold shivers

Breathlessness and difficulty breathing

Coughing up phlegm

 

Levels of Severity

Severe cases (14%) – difficulty breathing alongside hypoxia

Critical cases (5%) – heart failure or organ failure C2

1 in 3 influenza patients also contract a pneumococcal bacterial infectionF1 that can lead to pneumonia, while some cases may develop sepsis, which can be fatal

Patients usually require a hospital stay to recoverP2

 

One of the leading causes of death among those over the age of 65P2

 

Some patients may develop sepsis or meningitis, which can be fatal, especially in those with congenital health conditions

Fatality Rates

1.4 - 2.3%  C3, C4 from all age groups (the true fatality rate is expected to be lower than 1% due to asymptomatic cases not currently being factored into equations)

 

14.8% for those over 80

 

For those with congenital health conditions:

  • Heart disease: 10.5%
  • Diabetes: 7.3%
  • Lung disease: 6%

Less than 0.1% from all age groupsF4

 

11.4% for those over 65

 

For those with congenital health conditions

  • Heart disease: 11%
  • Diabetes: 10.6%
  • Chronic lung disease: 7.7%

10% from all age groupsP3

 

22% for those over 65

 

For those with congenital health conditions

  • Heart disease: 18%
  • Diabetes: 11%
  • Chronic lung disease: 10%

How the disease is spread

Being within 1–2 meters of someone with the disease who is coughing or sneezing, or through contact with surfaces contaminated with the saliva of infected patients, which is transferred to the face, nose and mouth via the hands. There is currently no evidence to suggest that this virus can survive suspended in the air. C5

The influenza virus is present in the phlegm, saliva and nasal mucus of infected patients. It is spread via coughing, sneezing or through contact with contaminated objects.

Pneumococcus bacteria resides within the nasal passage and throat of every person. It can be spread via air particles, coughing and sneezing.

Prevention

Frequently wash hands with soap and water, or with alcohol gels with an alcohol content no lower than 70% C6

 

Keep at least 1 meter away from infected patients, although 2 meters is advisable if they are coughing or sneezing

 

Avoid touching your face, nose and mouth, and cease greetings that involve bodily contact such as shaking hands or hugging

 

Wear a protective face mask

Avoid built up and congested areas

Thoroughly wash hands

 

Wear a protective face mask

 

Avoid congested areas

 

Receive an influenza vaccinationP4 (one injection every year)

Thoroughly wash hands

 

Wear a protective face mask

 

Avoid congested areas

 

Receive a pneumococcus vaccinationP4 ( a one-time injection for protection against 13 strains and another one-time injection offering protection against a further 23 strains, one year apart)

Reference
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